The FPSLREB is an independent quasi-judicial statutory tribunal established by the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board Act (FPSLREBA), which came into force on November 1, 2014. The FPSLREB is responsible for administering the collective bargaining and grievance adjudication systems in the federal public service and in Parliament. It is also responsible for the resolution of staffing complaints related to internal appointments and layoffs in the federal public service. It can also receive complaints about appointments that were made to comply with an order in a previous FPSLREB decision, as well as revocations of internal appointments.

The FPSLREB is the creation of a merger of the Public Service Labour Relations Board (PSLRB) and the Public Service Staffing Tribunal (PSST). The FPSLREB deals with matters that were previously dealt with by those former tribunals under the Public Service Labour Relations and Employment Board Act and the Public Service Employment Act, respectively.